Al-Hasan Al-Basri : "kalian tidak lebih dari sekumpulan hari-hari, setiap pergi satu hari, maka berarti pergi juga sebagian dari kalian" Rusdin

Selasa, 13 Januari 2015

ELT Methode

  1. Why should the EFL/ESL teacher be concerned about keeping up with the results of classroom research and second language acquisition? Answer : Because the teacher is the main actor or role model in the classroom who runs, administers and manages the students. The teacher is the director and manager of the learning process and curriculum developer. She or he is the key individual who manages of the classroom activities. The teacher’s expectations, encouragement, evaluations, attentiveness and attitude greatly affect student’s perception of their lesson abilities. The teacher needs to provide a variety of teaching strategies that will influence students learning. They need to adapt and modify their pedagogy to make effective instructional decisions that draw students on their various abilities, cultural learning styles and backgrounds. By keeping the results of the classroom research the teacher can make their self which part of their pedagogy can’t acceptable by the learner, and their pedagogy can provide if any errors when they teaching the student, also the teacher can measure in which part of the learner understand about the accepting the knowledge from the teacher, and for the next research. In second language learning the student need understanding much about the ability in acquire the language as they learn to the teacher, because the teacher is the main actor and model in success of the student in ESL. In concerning the teaching process in the classroom the teacher aware of students success which one the students can’t accept or understanding when the teacher delivery and teach their student while in part of the student understandable in their acquire the of the language. As mentioning above the teacher should have strong pedagogy as their teacher. The success of the student depend on their experience and knowledge when they run the ESL classroom. They are not just teach to their student but the important one is they aware and keeping up the research in the classroom since the process of teaching learning. 
  2. Do you agree that teachers should make their lesson objectives clear to their students? Can you think of situation in which this would be inappropriate? Why?    Answer : Yes, I agree that the teachers should make their lesson objective clearly to their students. As I’m a teacher at junior high school and lecturer at the non government university at Dompu that the teacher must plan the lesson objective clearly during learning process. As we known a lesson objective is an outcome statement that captures specifically what knowledge, skills, attitudes learners should be able to exhibit following instruction. A common misappropriation of objectives is for the teacher to state what he or she is going to do example: my plan this morning is to talk about…, rather than what the student is expected to be able to do example: after this session, you should be able to...ect. So if instructional objectives should be an easy task when it comes to planning individual class period. Lesson objective should emanate directly from instructional objectives and at least indirectly from program or course goal. Every each of meeting with students the teachers should use the lesson objective that the students understand what should gain from the lesson as they accepted in learning process. The learning objective provides a detailed description of what the student will be able to do when the instruction ends. A teacher uses a learning directive to help students understand how to make practicaluse of information learned during the lesson. Furthermore lesson Objective states what a student will be able to do once he or she has completed instruction.  It is a specific, measurable, short-term, observable student behavior.  The situation in which I do not use the  the objective lesson at my student when situation such as behavior factor, attitude, motivation, and happen at the opportunity to build their idea and feeling. One of the main challenges that ESL teachers face when identifying meaningful goals and objectives is going beyond identifying language skills, such as speaking, listening, reading and writing. Too often, ESL lessons merely focus on surface level language skills and allot too little attention to promoting students’ critical thinking and deeper understandings of language and language learning.  We cannot emphasize enough how important these deeper level understandings are in reaching all students; they serve as a bridge between what we want student to learn, namely knowledge (e.g., rules, definitions, vocabulary) and skills (e.g. speaking, listening, reading and writing, thinking and learning strategies, usage of appropriate vocabulary), and students’ motivation, feelings and personal ideas about language learning. If this link between knowledge/skills and motivation/feelings does not exist, little meaningful and sustained language learning will occur.

  3. How much do you think presentation, explanation, and discussion of rules for language use have place in the SL classroom? What underlying view of language and language learning support your view? Answer : English language learners are a richly differently each person. The ways they take to acquire a new language and to adjust to their new environment are also many kinds and in keeping with their unique needs and experiences. English language learners are a wide variety of life situations and understandings and a range of educational experiences or based on their social milieu. Within the safe and welcoming classroom environment, teachers are given a unique opportunity to tap the rich resource of knowledge and understandings that SL bring to school, and which, in turn, enrich the learning of all students in the classroom. The role of the school and the teacher is critical in supporting their identities and development as bilingual learners, and in helping English language learners shape a vision of the future. Students can be encouraged to use classroom language independently under two conditions: it helps them to express themselves or have their needs and wishes met, and the lesson structure enables them to make decisions and requests. My view of language and language learning that language is one of the important study for the students that the teachers bring knowledge, enthusiasm, and varied teaching and assessment approaches to the classroom, addressing individual student needs and ensuring sound and challenging learning opportunities for every student. So the teacher must be rich of knowledge and experience to enhance their familiar pedagogy in teaching second language classroom.
  4. What are integrated or thematic unit? how are they useful in supporting second language and literacy development? Answer : Thematic or integrated instruction is an interdisciplinary teaching approach that presents subject matter according to themes or topics. Each theme or topic is presented in extended units so that students have enough time to develop understanding and to find connections to what they know and value. This approach integrates knowledge from different disciplines and encourages students to explore topics deeply, reading many different sources and engaging in a variety of activities. The use of multiple sources encourages students to be involved in planning, locating materials, and thinking more actively and deeply than when learning is based on a single text. As a result of their in depth study, students are more likely to understand and feel confident in their learning. Examples of thematic teaching include explorations of big questions, such as: What happened to the dinosaurs? What impact do rain forests have on our life? Can family members and older adults be our friends?. In the model, "the theme" becomes the critical thinking binder that helps bring different and seemingly unrelated information together into a unified whole. The model encourages a student to think around a subject. The model is inclusive and encourages the student to see and seek relationships between information and facts from various sources inside, and outside of, the classroom. It is also a scalar form of learning as it encourages students to look for thematic relationships between finite, or specific information, and larger even global thinking.  For example basic component in Choosing a theme as mentioning above. In continued answering of the question how are they useful in supporting second language and literacy development? I think integrated or thematic unit is one of the approach style that the teacher applied to their student. The thematic unit is very important in supporting the literacy development such as (1) integrate and enrich the language processes of reading, writing, listening, speaking, and thinking, (2) practice reading different kinds of materials for varied purposes, (3) use prior knowledge of the world and past experiences with language and text to create relationships among various sources of information, (4) make choices, interact, collaborate, and cooperate, (5) apply what they learn in meaningful and "real world" contexts, (6) informally assess their understanding and application of what they are learning. Participate and learn, regardless of ability, level of language development, or background, (7) learn effectively in self-contained, multi-age, or departmental classrooms. As mention above about integrated or thematic unit in supporting the language and literacy development is the part of, there are many more that just my understanding in pedagogy teaching learning in junior and college student since I,m a teacher in SL.
  5. What is cooperative learning? What are some of the dimensions of cooperative learning activities that can be varied in order to provide students with a range of language and content learning opportunities? Answer : The cooperative learning context is one in which students work together in a setting in which instructional goals can be reached, also cooperative learning can be seen as a tool through which teaching can be more focused on learning outcomes, as students work together.  At the same time, cooperative learning has become more relevant in the modern context of education because it seeks to transform the role of the teacher as a facilitator of learning as opposed to the center of all instruction.  Cooperative learning has demonstrated itself to be relevant to the field of education because of its applications, as well.  The occupational settings in which students will inhabit are ones in which collaborative settings are the only guarantee.  The transforming of the workplace is one that cannot be accounted or accurately predicted.  One known element is that students will have to demonstrate the capacity to work together and collaborate with individuals to solve problems.  It is here in which there is much in way of contextual significance of cooperative learning in the education field. The first requirement for an effectively structured cooperative lesson is that students believe that they "sink or swim together." Within cooperative learning situations, students have two responsibilities: 1) learn the assigned material, and 2) ensure that all members of the group learn the assigned material. The technical term for that dual responsibility is interdependence. Interdependence exists when students perceive that they are linked with group mates in such a way that they cannot succeed unless their group mates do and/or that they must coordinate their efforts with the efforts of their group mates to complete a task. Cooperative learning is gaining popularity for a number of reasons.  Evidence indicates that it raises achievement, promotes positive self concept, and raises regard for others.  It appears to be especially useful for students from minority and low socio-economic groups who have not excelled to the same degree as middle income majority-culture pupils in the traditional competitive classroom.  The performance of these previously less successful groups tends to rise in cooperative groups, majority culture students seem to achieve just as well as with the individually-oriented style of instruction and learning, often better.  Cooperative learning may also help to lessen the fatalistic attitude toward schooling that is often found among students from minority groups and those who have experienced repeated failure in the schools.  When these students notice the value of their input and effort, a more internal locus of control and belief in one's ability is fostered. Social and work skills are imbedded.