Al-Hasan Al-Basri : "kalian tidak lebih dari sekumpulan hari-hari, setiap pergi satu hari, maka berarti pergi juga sebagian dari kalian" Rusdin

Sabtu, 20 Desember 2014

Foundation of Science



Lecturer by Prof. Nurachman Hanafi, MA., P. hD

R u s d i n
I s m i a t i
class: B





Foundation of Education
At Senior High School No 1 Taliwang West Sumbawa Regency


I.  Introduction

Education takes a very important role in humans’ live. Beside the target of education is to develop humans’ knowledge, it also a way to educate people to build good moral. One of the education concerns in every school and university is behavior. To gain the goals of education, every schools or university has its own ways and program. Each of which applies different foundation as the concept of conducting education. Education managements, programs, and contents are continuously developed for example curriculum, syllabus, and facility changed and increased to reach the good quality of education.
Formal education is commonly gained in schools. In the view of idealist educators, schooling is an intellectual institution where teachers and students work together to find the universal truth. Everyone has his right to attend school. The process of teaching and learning are conducted according to principle rule in each school, the role of teachers and learners is well organized and influenced by some factors such as the syllabus matter and also culture.
 According to Jeremy Henzell-Thomas, Holistic education is a way to develop and build the whole aspects of learning such as esthetic, spiritual, moral, imaginative, intellectual, culture, emotion, physic by which the learners release the relationship with God as the end of the entire life in the world. Hanafi in the book entitled pendidikan Holistik” (2012), states that holistic education should involve religious aspect to make it is useful. He further defines education is a process of transferring science, knowledge, and attitude which build “akhlakul Karimah” in the domain  of teaching and learning process  in which curriculum involves to set the learning goals. Same with Imam Prayago state that in Islam by al-Qura'an known concepts of the ideal man, for example muttaqun, ulul al bab, ulin nuhu, ulil abshar. It illustrates perfectly the concept of a superior being and ideal characteristics. All human concepts touched through the concept.  
This paper describes the foundation of education which is used by senior high school No. 1 Taliwang. It also explains about the sorts of foundation used in the school; whether it deals with philosophy or religion, it examines the structure of subject and teaching process as well as elaborates about mission, vision, and others programs which regularly conducted in the school. This further explanation concerns the name of subjects which set in syllabus and learnt by the students of science and social class at grade eleven.

II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1    The Concept of Knowledge
Knowledge in Islam is not merely important. It also occupies a dominant position in its doctrine. “It dominated over all aspects of Muslim intellectual, spiritual and social life” Rosmani (1996). It also enables man to grasp the right meaning or the reality of the signs he observes based on Qur’an and Sunnah. According to Hanafi (2012), In general, education is the mother of the culture. Through education can be parsed to how the human consciousness in attitude-cultural life as social beings in space and time provided the Creator. Education also determines the direction of the rise of a civilized nation to tread a future trip while preserving the viability meaningful in the sense of culture.
In his article of ‘holistic education in prespective Islam’ notice that education is the implementing in the culture of human life. The education means by him is holistic education based on the al-Qur’an and Hadits, futhermore he note that “Islam as a living arrangement present a holistic view of education is not a new thing because education delivered the Creator of the universe of his life to creatures is not partial. Before of the creation of the first man on earth God has determined the role of man as a creature alternatives”. Holistic aducation it was implementing to the human being since the prophet Adam As searhcing live to the earth long time ago teach by angel Gabrial as nounce in the al-Qur’an. So holistic or charachter education is begin not in the new era now but it was begin since the human bing searching the live on the earth, but now the goverment as the central of decitioan maker of the curriculum claim holistic education is must be run to the every school throuhg Indonesia.



2.2    The Character Education in the Goverment Curriculum
The character education one of the central polemic that have been discuss at the level of education by the goverment of Indonesia esprcially by decition maker of policy. The  government through the relevant  institutions did make this issue as  a priority,  because the character or holistic education is one of  an important pillar of Indonesian sociaty.
Character is an important manifestation of the implementation of the educational process at  every level of education. Education, as the defined in Law No. 20 Year  2003 on National Education System (Sistem Pendidikan Nasional) states "Education is a  conscious and deliberate effort to create an atmosphere of learning and the learning process so  that learners are actively developing the potential for him to have the spiritual strength of religious, self-control, personality, intelligence, noble character, and the skills needed himself,  society, nation and the State " (Depdiknas, 2003). Basic of implementation of character  education in schools are also listed implicitly in the National Long -Term Development Plan on 2005 - 2025, in which the government  makes character development as one of the priorities of national development programs. In this matter, it is explained that the character education is placed as the foundation for the national development vision, like to realize a noble society, to have a great morality, ethical, cultured, and civilized by the philosophy of Pancasila (Kemendiknas, 2010). It means that the character is important in the implementation of development capital, thus becoming a major priority. Furthermore, it is also formulated in a character education Kemendiknas Strategic Plan, 2010 -2014, (Kemendiknas, 2010).
According to Kemendiknas (2010), The Government through the Department of Education develops the values that are important to be character of the students and integrated into learning process. These values namely, (1) Religious, (2) Honest, (3) Tolerance, (4) Discipline, (5) Work hard, (6) Creative (7) Independent, (8) Democratic, (9) Curiosity, (10) The Spirit of Nationality, (11) Love the country, (12) Rewarding Achievement, (13) Friendly / Communicative, (14) Love of Peace, (15) Joy of Reading, (16) Environmental Care, (17 ) Social Care, (18) Responsibility (Kemendiknas, 2010).
That Presidential Directive is implemented with the convening of character education at every level of education, in example elementary, junior and senior high school and even though in the college. It is also relevant, because it is based on the grand design of national developm ent in 2020, Indonesia’s government stated that the biggest challenge faced by the nation of Indonesia is the era of decentralization and globalization, (Kemendiknas, 2010).
Nowdays the goverment was estabilish character education by appliying the the new curriculum 2013 is full of character. In high school the materials are full of character education, the students need to have the knowledge, skills, attitudes and noble and have a competitive edge in facing globalization. In the context of globalization is indeed important that learners are prepared in order to face these conditions.
Based on the Kemendiknas above that system education in Indonesia must be based on the Pancasila not completelly based on the al-Qur’an and Hadits as we stated above. So it’s clear in throughout school all over Indonesia based on the Pancasila as the general way of life of Indonesian as the live 6 big different believe/relagion. Eventhough the central goverment has been given oportunity the policy maker by the region self to organise their school but fundamentally every school must be apply the basic curriculum based on the central goverment.

2.3    Basic Concept of Curriculum
Character education curriculum is the concept of a curriculum that is designed as a learning experience. In this context, the curriculum is not sense in terms of material, but rather a learning experience that is designed for learners. Caswel and Campbell in Zais (1976) stated that the curriculum is all the experience of the children under the guidance of a teacher. The same thing also expressed by Print (1993: 5) who explains that the curriculum is learner experience gained in the context of the education including unplanned curriculum or called the hidden curriculum. In this case, it means that the curriculum is all the things that are designed by the school to be followed by the child during this particular education, in the form of a number of learning experiences for students.
So based on this definition, the school will be able to design a learning program that can be followed by students in accordance with the educational objectives that have been planned in advance. In designing a learning experience, then the curriculum needs to be developed intensively by education practitioners. In curriculum development, there are a number of models proposed by curriculum experts. Print (1993:85) explains that in the process of developing a curriculum there are a number of steps that need to be explained sustainably. The move started from analyzing the situation, followed by analysis purposes consisting of general and specific objectives, analyze appropri ate content, analyze the learning experience, evaluation and subsequent analyzes followed by re-analyzing the situation again. The process used in the development of the curriculum is an ongoing thing and it is a cycle.

2.4    The Concept of Education in Islam
Education in Islam is “our holy Quran and the hadith of the Prophet should be understood as a complete picture of the concept of education. Therefore jargon back to the Qur'an and the hadith of the Prophet should also be seen in the provision of education. similarly, when viewed as an educator Prophet then it should also be emulated in performing that role”. Imam Suprayogo (2012). Futhermore he stated that should be based on the Qur'an and the hadith of the Prophet should be explored and captured, what exactly is the basic and fundamental mission of the presence of the Qur'an and the Prophet's sayings.
That the teachings of Islam are derived from the Qur'an and the hadith of the Prophet brought five major missions namely; The first presence of Islam meant that humanity becomes rich science. Second, make that man of superior quality with the following characteristics: (a) managed to understand him as a provision to know the Lord or tauhid, (b) can be trusted or have trust, (c) always do tazkiyatun nafs or maintain the sanctity itself, and (d) always think and act up beyond their self-interest. Fourth, Islam provides guidance in conducting rituals, like prayer, penis, fasting, pilgrimage, and so on. Fifth, the concept of good deeds. simply charity is working, while pious meaning is true, accurate, and appropriate. Syed Sajjad (1979)an education which trains the sensibility of an individual, in such a manner that their attitude towards life, their actions, decisions and approach to all kinds of knowledge are governed by the spiritual and deeply felt ethical values of Islam”. It prepares human beings for holistic life with no separation of this temporary life which ends with death, and the eternal life that begins after death Ghulam (1977). It is a means of training the body, mind and soul through imparting the knowledge of all kinds i.e. fundamental as compulsory and specialized as optional.
Education in Islam is not merely of acquiring intellectual knowledge but it is a mean of moulding the nature and character of an individual so that they can collectively represent Islamic values, behave as vicegerent of Allāh on the earth, witness of true, nobility and human greatness Hussain (1979). In another word, education is “a process through which human beings are trained and prepared in a concerted way to do their Creator’s bidding in this life (dunyā) to be rewarded in the life after death (ākhirah)” Rabiatthani (1977).
The terminology of education from Islamic perspective is often defined by Muslim from three different dimensions which are reflected in different concepts introduced, important among them are; tarbiyyah the process of education that gives emphasis on physical and intellectual development of an individual; ta’dib  the process of education that gives emphasis on nurturing good human beings with knowledge of the faith and the noble codes of conduct/ethics approved by Islam, so that he may place himself and deal with others in society with justice; and talim the process of education that is based on teaching and learning.
According to Hanafi (2012), holistic education in Islam, not in spite of the parameters that the Prophet used to guide people as a real guide. Furthermore he notice that Real guidelines intended is a dose of how education is formulated within the framework of Islam. Which of these parameters was born Umar ibn al-Khattab in the context of studying the Prophet while searching for the true meaning of life. In front inbu Umar Khattab, the Angel Gabriel (600 dimensional beings) to test understanding of the teachings of the Messenger of Allah in relation to the education of his people. there are 4 important things delivered involves: (1) Faith (basic life), (2) Islam Structuring Life, (3) Ihsan (Purpose of Life), and Saab (Management of life) that synergize with one another in building a community education.
Based on the experts above that islam education it was play important role since the human being created in this earth.








III. DISCUSSION

3.1    Senior High School No. 1 Taliwang
Senior high school 1 Taliwang is one of favorite schools in west Sumbawa regency. The number of students is 485.The group of study consists of eighteen classes which is classified into three classes for science and three for social classes in each grade or level. The number of students in grade ten is divided into 28 males and 62 females in science class, 35 males and 56 females in social class. For grade eleven, there are 20 males and 58 females in science class, and 33 males and 47 females in social class. In the grade twelve, the total number of students in science class is 62 students consist of 21 males and 41 females. In social class, the female students are 54 and male students are 30. In addition, the number of teacher in the school is 42 teachers who are divided into 19 males and 22 females. The total number subjects for grade ten which is included in science and social class is 14 subjects, for grade eleven is 13 subjects, and at grade twelve is 17 subjects. Name of the subjects and total credit hours for each subject for grade ten to twelve can be seen in the table bellow;
Kelas X (Grade ten)
Kelas XI (Grade eleven)
Kelas XII (Grade twelve)
Science classes
Social class
Science classes
Social class
Science classes
Social class
Course subjects
Credit hours
Course subjects
Credit hours
Course subjects
Credit hours
Course subjects
Credit hours
Course subjects
Credit hours
Course subjects
Credit hours
kwn
2 jp
kwn
2jp
kwn
2jp
kwn
2jp
matik
4jp
matik
4jp
seni budaya
2jp
seni budaya
2jp
kimia
4jp


b. jepang
2jp
b. jepang
2jp
matematika
7jp
matematika
4jp
b. indo
4jp
b. indo
4jp
biologi
4jp
biologi
4jp
geografi
3jp
geografi
3jp
penjas
3jp
penjas
3jp
bp/bk
1jp
bp/bk
1jp
penjas
4jp
penjas
4jp
b. ing
2jp
b. ing
2jp
penjas
2jp
penjas
2jp
bhs. ing
2ip
bhs. ing
2jp
fisika
4jp


seni budaya
2jp
seni budaya
2jp
prakarya & kewirausaha
2jp
prakarya & kewirausaha
2jp
seni bu
daya
2jp
seni bu
daya
2jp
kwn
2jp
kwn
2jp
kimia
3jp
kimia
3jp
geografi
4jp
geografi
4jp
kimia
4jp
kimia
4jp
fisika
3jp
fisika
3jp
biologi
4jp
biologi
4jp
agama
2jp
agama
2jp
agama
3jp
agama
3jp
sejarah
2jp
sejarah
6jp
fisika
4jp
fisika
4jp
biologi
3jp
biologi
3jp
agama
3jp
agama
3jp
b. indo
4jp
b. indo
4jp
b. indo
4jp
b. indo
4jp
prakarya
2jp
prakarya
2jp
sejarah
1jp

sejarah
1jp

sejarah
2jp
sejarah
5jp
matik
8jp
matik
4jp
b. ing
4jp
b. ing
4jp
ekonomi
3jp
ekonomi
3jp




mulok
2jp
mulok
2jp










ekonomi
3jp










sosiologi
3jp










geografi
4jp
Resource: Real data at SMAN 1 Taliwang taken on 3/12/2014(TU)

vission of the school is “terwujudnya peserta didik yang cerdas, berprestasi, berwawasan lingkungan serta berkepribadian yang berlandaskan, iman, ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi”. The missions are; (1) menciptakan suasana pembelajaran yang kondusif, (2) menciptakan suasana lingkungan yang bersih, sehat, aman, indah dan nyaman, (3) menerapkan manajemen terbuka dan partisipatif dalam pengelolaan sekolah, (4) meningkatkan kedisiplinan dan profesionalisme tenaga pendidik dan kependidikan, (5) meningkatkan penghayatan dan pengamalan ajaran agama dan nilai- nilai luhur budaya bangsa serta kearifan local yang menjadi pedoman dalam berfikir, bersikap, dan bertindak, (6)  membangun suasana belajar yang menyenangkan dan membangun rasa ingin tahu yang tinggi dalam diri siswa, (7) menciptakan suasana kompetitif yang positif antar warga sekolah, (8) melaksanakan pembinaan siswa secara berkesinambungan melalui kegiatan intrakurikuler dan ekstrakurikuler, (9) memberdayakan warga sekolah secara optimal untuk mendukung proses pembelajaran yang efektif dan efisien, (10) melaksanakan kerjasama yang harmonis dengan semua stakeholders (komite sekolah, dunia usaha, dan dunia industry).

Furthermore, related to the vision and mission, the schools apply some programs such as reading Al- Qur’an every Friday; teachers together with students gather in an Aula to read Al-Qur’an and listen to student’s ceramah to build the students’ understanding and practice of religion. Teaching moral value is also done every day in the school field through dzikir together for about ten minutes. This activity is led by an Islamic religion teacher and a student. Some teachers are chosen to teach students reading Al- Qur’an in the afternoon every twice a week. This activity is also regularly programmed to improve the students’ knowledge about their religion and build their good attitude and moral in other they can put themselves as intelligent and religious students in the world. The way to be discipline, the school makes a rule that all teachers and students in the school must come on time and they are not allowed to be late to enter the class for teaching and learning process.
Furthermore, beside they learn compulsory subjects in the classroom, all students also involve in two choices of extra activity. These programs are conducted after school in the school area. To enrich the students’ knowledge, intelligent, and competence, the schools prepare routine extra class for those who have higher cognitive ability to send them join national science competition which always conducted every year by the government. Such as Biology Olympiad, Chemistry, Math, Astronomy, Economy Olympiad, and English debate competition. Five students involve in one group of study. Two teachers are responsible in one group of study. The meeting is run after school every two times in a week. For the rests of students in the schools, some join the extra activities in sport, and others involve in music and arts.
Dealing to teaching and learning process in the classroom, According to the result of interview with some teachers who teach at grade eleven such as; a Biology teacher, PPKN teacher, History teacher, and Economy teacher, almost all teachers in that school always connect the teaching process to the concept of Islamic religion, for example, during one and half hours of learning process in the classroom, a History teacher said that he used to ask students to pray before start to learn, asking and reminding them to do five times praying, and pay attention to their attitude, in explaining some topics of the history lesson, the teacher sometimes correlate them to Islamic religion stories. PPKN teacher stated that teachers should always remind students to keep doing their responsibilities on religion to make them easily understand what they learn in school and working hard to reach their future. Most topics of PPKN class are related and illustrated based on the concept of religion. Biology teacher used to remind his students that gaining rich knowledge is done through praying, having good moral, and working hard. He sometimes build the students’ spirit by illustration the hard works of Islamic biology scientists.    
To reach good quality of the teaching and learning process and to support the students’ extra classes and activities, the school has been preparing and presenting many available and representative facilities. Each class is facilitated with multimedia to create the interesting and easy learning process. Different rooms are available are functioned for different activities, such as; music room, art room, and meeting room. To enrich the teachers and the students’ knowledge, a number of books and internet access are available. Moreover, the school program is also focused to clean and healthy school environment. Not only the school gardeners are responsible for this, but also teachers and students take part in this activity. During one hour every Saturday morning, students work together to clean their class and school environment. Teachers take role control and facilitate the students’ work. This program is ended to create a good atmosphere in the school environment to make the students enjoy learning, this also builds the students’ good characteristic to build cooperative work and love nature. The school also takes cares to the students’ health by programming thirty minutes gymnastic every Saturday morning before doing the cleaning school environment program.
Moreover, the text books of some subjects like Biology, match, and chemistry do not contain any materials that related to religion concepts, however, the teacher introduce the other religion based illustration that deal with some topics of the course. There some subjects which much concern to religion such as PPKN, Indonesian language, History subject, and Islamic religion. the teachers who handle the classes always bring some concepts of religion which are related to the topic of learning.


IV.   CONCLUSION
Based on the description about subject contents, teaching and learning concept, vision, mission, and all programs conducted in Senior high school one Taliwang, it can be concluded that the school combine the basic concept between religion and philosophy of holistic education as the foundation of doing all activities in the school, building religion concept in students’ as well as teachers’ mind is done through religious activities such as, reading Al- Qur’an, listening to teacher and student’s ceramah, extra activity to teach students reading Al- Qur’an, dzikir together. Related to the concept of holistic education that gaining cognitive ability as important as teaching moral value, many teachers in the school implicitly apply moral teaching into the subject teaching in the classroom. To build the discipline attitude, the school emphasis discipline on the time teaching and learning process in the class. The students and the teachers must come on time to school and they may not late to enter the class. One of the important targets is acquiring knowledge or students’ cognitive ability. The get this, some programs are conducted such as giving extra class to prepare students face the national science competition, facilities to support the learning process in the classroom such as multimedia is available in each class to create interesting and understanding teaching and learning process.



References

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