Book Title : Task-Based Language Teaching
Writer : David Nunan
Amount of Chapter : 8 Chapters
Amount of Pages : 218 pages
Published : In the United States of America by Cambridge
University Press, New York
Year of Published : 2004
Website : www.cambridge.org
Reviewed : Rusdin
Reviewed : Rusdin
Task-Based Language Teaching
Task-Based Language Teaching is one of the teacher best guides for teaching learning process in the classroom. The information and pedagogy for the teaching are available in the book. In this book many information for the teachers to show some ideas about how Task-Based Language Teaching can be run and apply in language classes. The writer of this book achieves this by providing teachers with models and an empirical basis for Task-Based Language Teaching, clarifying the role of focus on form in Task-Based Language Teaching, and giving teachers some ideas about how Task-Based Language Teaching can be assessed. The book consists of eight chapters on different aspects of Task-Based Language Teaching and each of chapter is connected each other about information of Task-Based Language Taching. Nunan point to different researchers’ ideas before starting his own approach. This style of proceeding provides the reader with so many comprehension into Task-Based Language Teaching.
In the first chapter of Task-Based Language Teaching Nunan explain a model for Task-Based Language Teaching that articulated the relationship between tasks and other curricular elements discussed and set within a boarder curriculum frame work. He specified in the content about what is Task-Based and read whole the chapter, Nunan applied the term of communicative language teaching of Task-Based Language Teaching that concerned discussed about teaching model and style that can easy for the student to understand in receive the knowledge of the language in taught. Task-based is one of the important elements to be applied to the student; Nunan inform how Task-Based developed as a model of the teaching learning that articulated the relationship between task and other curricular element. In teaching model of Task-Based he discusses detail of the communicative language teaching, Alternative approaches to syllabus design, experiential learning, Policy and practice, and the role of the learner. It has been setting easily for the teachers to contribute their pedagogically in teaching.
In chapter 2 Nunan categorize the teaching language by developing a framework for transforming target or real-world tasks into pedagogical tasks. The author has been given exemplification of the detail elements that support of teaching English in using of a framework task-based. The sections of the developing syllabus in creating the concept of pedagogy the author design clearly of planning and material in teaching of student based on Task-Based Language Teaching. In the end of this chapter he explains the key of principles of Task-Based Language Teaching and the important place to learning that is classroom or classroom task-based.
In the chapter 3 Nunan assume that Task-Based Language Teaching discusses the whole teaching model in all. In this chapter he examine the key elements related to the task goal, input and procedures in specification of detail roles for the teachers and learners in setting for goal of Task-Based Language Teaching. In this task component the role of teacher and learner is really important to input data and procedures in what task to apply in process of teaching learning. Relationship of the learner as a participant in these of task component is important, so in the task component style consist of input, roles, settings, actions, monitoring, outcomes and feedback. The relationship between real world and pedagogic tasks, task and text authenticity and learning strategies in Task-Based Language Teaching are also touched on.
Chapter 4 Nunan talk about how to provide a summary of the research in task-based. One area of particular interest is that of task difficulty and complexity. In this chapter he divide the factor of difficulties in task management in teaching language and he focus on the output and input hypothesis of the task-based. By using five hypothesis of the Stephen Krashen’s theory the author engage that the component Task-Based Teaching Language can be analysis in succeeding of the teaching learning. Finding out the task difficulty the author input the discuss of the interaction, output and the negotiation of meaning, most of these studies to identify the characteristics of pedagogical tasks component that stimulated negotiation of meaning. By giving exemplification more about factors happen to learner in learning the author proposed two kinds dimension framework of task according to the expert one happen to the learner is making abstract such expressing the opinion in which of manner to spread out. So the important negotiation of meaning that important element in finding the task types and cognitive complexity.
Talking about ‘Focus on Form in Task-Based Language Teaching’ In Chapter 5, Nunan verify the nature of the controversy, form appropriate in to a task-based instructional cycle, and unfocused task. Form is learning conscious in acquiring the language and this study focus in grammatical instruction use by learners while unfocused task is the capable the learner of using any other resource of studying language. Grading, Sequencing and Integrating Tasks. Chapter 6: In this chapter some key elements in grading, sequencing and integrating tasks are explored. Nunan argues that many factors need to be taken into account and that these factors are interrelated. In this chapter Nunan focusing describe how the methodological device for classroom action, that it is a central curriculum planning tool. In his conclusion of this chapter, Nunan determine that many factors happening in the task to deciding to be appropriate ordering of the task.
Estimating Task-Based Language Teaching Chapter 7: This chapter is mainly about assessment in Task-Based Language Teaching. Key issues related to assessment are considered and related to the context of Task-Based Language Teaching. Some practical tools such as performance scales, portfolios and production tasks are explored. Task-Based Language Teaching presents challenges in all areas of the curriculum. This is particularly true for assessment, which is coming under increasing scrutiny as it is realized that Task-Based Language Teaching cannot be assessed according to traditional methods. In the final chapter Nunan focuses on tasks and teacher development: how teachers can evaluate and create their own tasks. Nunan concludes that tasks can be used as a point of departure for small scale classroom projects by teachers themselves. Chapter 8 is devoted to tasks and teacher development. The purpose of this chapter is to look at task construction and evaluation from the perspective of the teacher, and to provide suggestions for introducing tasks in teacher development workshops.
To conclude the whole reviewed of this book I would like to make conclusion about the book of Task-Based Language Teaching by David Nunan that Task-Based Language Teaching is an approach to language teaching organized around tasks rather than language structures. This book on Task-Based Language Teaching has been written with a very different and unique perspective. It not only discusses teaching pedagogy as an academic subject but also rethinks as to how it can be useful in the language teaching perspective. Teachers will make up their own minds as to whether their methods and techniques need reconsidering in the light of what teaching learning of the language, but, as with all new trends in linguistic theory and description, it is important that Task-Based Language Teaching be subjected not only to the scrutiny of applied linguists but also to the testing grounds of practical materials and classroom activities. One drawback with this book is that it gives little in theory and tells a lot in the form of activities. Though it’s the practical way of doing things but that’s true in the Western context. In our country of Indonesia context it has to tell more and do less while it’s the other way round. On the other hand writer provides the readers with a glossary of terms used in the book to clarify their meaning. “Reflection boxes” in each chapter make the writer and reader interact and also make the reader consider how he/she can make use of Task-Based Language Teaching in their own teaching contexts.